– Lewis Mumford. The Culture of Cities. ‘The city is a fact in nature, like a cave (…)’. (Mumford, 1938, cited in Braun, 2005, p. 636).
– Raymond Williams. The Country and the City (Williams, 1975): the transformation of Nature is inevitably connected to urbanisation. Socio-environmental conditions within the city are intertwined with socio-environmental transformations elsewhere = no matter how far one moves from the city, one cannot leave behind the city and its socio-ecological traces.
– Murray Bookchin (1992): the patterning that fuses ecological processes, environmental practices and urban condition is complex and politically regulated
– David Harvey: there is nothing unnatural about New York City.
Filed under: Understanding Social Science