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As regards social cohesion:


Precariousness in 7 cities (Flatley & McIntosh, 2000) and the dynamics which:

  • drive households into poverty or
  • allow them to resist


  • Importance of strong systems of social protection
  •  Employment is not enough to guarantee social inclusion
  •  Good housing and safe neighbourhoods: crucial (Bertaux, Boje & McIntosh, 2002).

As regards neighbourhood, social mix and identity  (Olagnero et al, 2005):


Neighbourhoods in Ireland (Dublin) and Italy (Turin) may show signs of weak welfare states that rely on family and informal community-based welfare support.

However, there may also be evidence of  the effectiveness of this support, undermined by recent social changes (e.g. more women in the labor market)


  • Dublin (neighbourhood with concentrated poverty): More social diversity (from gentrification) + new gated communities  (for affluent newcomers) –> undermined the existing neighbourhood bonds and systems of support
  • Turin: Increasing ethnic diversity and ethnic divisions: undermined the attachment of residents to the neighbourhood

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