According to Agyeman (2005), EJM’s do not propose a progressive socio-ecological utopia. They are:
- demonstrating against injustices
Urban political ecology has paid less empirical attention to environmental justice movements and placed more emphasis on questions of intense social struggle (Swyngedouw and Heynen, 2003):
- ‘How are socio-natural relations produced?’
- ‘By whom?’
- ‘For whom?’
From the ground up (Cole and Foster, 2001), EJM’s can improve the lives of disadvantaged communities:
- better their consciousness of injustice
- increase their self-confidence, capacity and expertise (p. 153)
However, EJM’s have only half succeeded in preventing environmental injustice (e.g. many TSDF’s are still built in disadvantaged communities).
It is surprising that environmental justice criticises social structures and injustices but not EJM’s! (Brulle and Pellow, 2005).
Scale and place have to be regarded as contested, in flux and relational (Massey, 2007; Swyngedouw and Heynen, 2003).
There is a growing interconnection between:
Click here to read all the topics on which further research about urban socio-ecological movements is needed.