Empirical evidence of social polarisation

Some research studies state that there is little empirical evidence of ‘dual cities’ (Buck et al. 2002)

Some other analyses point out concrete examples of cities showing signs of increasing occupational inequalities (Fainstein, 2001; Kräter, 2004):

  • The clearest evidence of polarisation:
  • Countries with weaker and less universalistic welfare state
  • Countries which have experienced economic crisis
  • (Szalai, 2005; Kessler and Di Virgilio, 2005; Maloutas, 2007)



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