Main debates and conceptions of inclusion and integration of migrants in the 20th century in Europe:
It is important to understand that changes in political and social contexts → changes in attitudes towards newcomers.
|1945-80s||Early 90s||Late 90s|
|– Political commitment to democracy
– Impulse to think inclusively
– Concentration on cultural diversity for the integration of migrants
– Cultural difference is not equally understood across Europe
|– The leading principle on integration is citizenship
– Focus on the active citizenship of ethnic minorities
|– ‘New realism’: ethnic minorities are expected to learn the language and adopt norms and values of the society.
– Integration understood as a question of identity.
Diversity defined as ethnicity
- Narrow definitions of diversity and identity; limited to ethnicity.
- Aspects such as socioeconomic background, gender, age, language… are NOT CONSIDERED.
Stigmatising cultural dichotomies
- Cultural diversity is approached negatively, not as an opportunity.
- Two views on immigration:
- As a long-term process where people find their way
- Immigration as a problem. Negative relationship between city, immigration and integration
Negative approach to cultural diversity
- Danger of using cultural dichotomies for social cohesion.
- The construction of difference may stigmatise a whole group for ages.