|– Legal and political recognition of minority cultures and identities coexisting in a territory.
– Support to organisations
– Quota regulations
– Strong legal action against racist crimes
– Empowering or protecting marginalized groups
– UK, Nordic countries, Ireland, Slovenia
It has become unable to create conflict-free, multi-ethnic societies.
|– Unified society with political stability, internal security, economic growth and equal opportunities for all individuals, regardless their origin.
– Focus on the active citizenship of ethnic minorities.
– Common national identity
– Related values
– Learning national language
Monoculturalist and multiculturalist visions are related to different understandings of diversity.
|Vision||🙂 Positive consequences of diversity||😦 Negative consequences of diversity||Cause of negative consequences||Combating negative consequences|
|Monoculturalist||None||– Social deprivation of groups/ limited social cohesion.||– Diversity is the cause of problems.- Deprivation is caused by cultural factors of migrants.||– Citizens as individuals.- Collective identities not accepted nor stimulated|
|Multiculturalist||Enrichment of culture||– Structural inequality between groups||– Unequal opportunities/ sources of deprived groups.- Social-economic factors.
– Host society.
|– Increasing sources/opportunities of deprived groups.- In law and policies, diversity is not a problem.
– Pragmatic approach towards diversity.
Source: Based on Vermeulen, F. (2008) Diversiteit in uitvoering: Lokaal beleid voor werkloze migranten jongeren in Amsterdam en Berlijn. Amsterdam/Den Haag: University of Amsterdam/NICIS institute (p. 17)