Cultural diversity as the focus of policies


Multiculturalism Monoculturalism
– Legal and political recognition of minority cultures and identities coexisting in a territory.  


– Support to organisations

– Quota regulations

– Strong legal action against racist crimes

– Empowering or protecting marginalized groups

– UK, Nordic countries, Ireland, Slovenia

It has become unable to create conflict-free, multi-ethnic societies.

Unified society with political stability, internal security, economic growth and equal opportunities for all individuals, regardless their origin.  

– Focus on the active citizenship of ethnic minorities.


– Common national identity

– Related values

– Learning national language

Monoculturalist and multiculturalist visions are related to different understandings of diversity.

Vision 🙂 Positive consequences of diversity 😦 Negative consequences of diversity Cause of negative consequences Combating negative consequences
Monoculturalist None – Social deprivation of groups/ limited social cohesion. Diversity is the cause of problems.- Deprivation is caused by cultural factors of migrants. – Citizens as individuals.- Collective identities not accepted nor stimulated
Multiculturalist Enrichment of culture Structural inequality between groups – Unequal opportunities/ sources of deprived groups.- Social-economic factors. 

Host society.

Increasing sources/opportunities of deprived groups.- In law and policies, diversity is not a problem. 

Pragmatic approach towards diversity.

Source: Based on Vermeulen, F. (2008) Diversiteit in uitvoering: Lokaal beleid voor werkloze migranten jongeren in Amsterdam en Berlijn. Amsterdam/Den Haag: University of Amsterdam/NICIS institute (p. 17)


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