Glastra (1999) distinguishes three policy approaches:
1. The deficit approach aims to reduce inequality between the dominant group (the norm group) and other groups in society.
The risks of this approach are: if one tries to combat inequality, one creates inequality.
The dominant group functions as a “norm group”. It is criticised for being too one-sided.
2. The discrimination approach focuses on prejudices, ethnic discrimination and exclusion
Both the deficit and the discrimination approaches aim at reducing differences.
3. The differentiation approach takes differences as the point of departure. Diversity is looked at as a source of innovation and is connected to economic performance.