Key term definition: integration

Integration is a model of governing cohesion and diversity by which all the members of the community can have full access to the opportunities, rights and services available and can be represented in all social processes. In the context of migration policies, it refers specifically to immigrants in a host society.


Key term definition: creative cities

Creative cities is a concept developed by Charles Landry in the late 1980s, encouraging a culture of creativity in urban planning and solutions to urban problems. It has become a global movement that inspires a new planning paradigm for cities and it is related to the concept of learning cities.

Key term definition: learning cities

The term learning cities refers to a new approach to urban development where learning is a key tool for social inclusion and urban generation. Learning refers both to individuals (usually life-long learning) and institutions (awareness to innovation), and strategies are developed through active partnerships and networking between cities, towns and communities.

Key term definition: theory of citizenship (T.H. Marshall)

T.H. Marshall’s theory of citizenship is a classic liberal theory which considers citizenship as the legal status providing rights and duties to members of a nation-state. Marshall’s theory is based on his seminal essay “Citizenship and Social Class” (1950), which analysed the development of citizenship as a development of civil, then political, then social rights, broadly assigned to the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries respectively. His concept of citizenship has created much dispute, especially because it is a restricted description of citizenship and because this definition does not take into account social inequalities.

Key term definition: social capital

The term social capital refers to social networks an individual has access to within a community, as a result of their position in the social structure. Social capital allows individuals to have opportunities for collective action and participation in the improvement of the community, but also generates discrimination for the less favourably positioned in the social structure.

Key term definition: welfare services

Welfare services are actions or procedures that cover the basic well-being of the individuals and the society. They may be provided as a citizenship right, or negotiated in the market, and managed by governments and institutions or private actors. These efforts usually strive to improve the financial situation of people in need but may also strive to improve their employment chances and many other aspects of their lives including sometimes their mental health. In many countries, most such aid is provided by women (family members, relatives and members of the local community) and is only theoretically available from government sources.

Key term definition: governance

Governance is a way of governing that provides the participation of the whole society. At a local level, it allows more and better coordination and interaction between the city institutions and citizens in decision making processes, and reinforces the role of individuals in social life.