Empirical evidence of social polarisation

Some research studies state that there is little empirical evidence of ‘dual cities’ (Buck et al. 2002)

Some other analyses point out concrete examples of cities showing signs of increasing occupational inequalities (Fainstein, 2001; Kräter, 2004):

  • The clearest evidence of polarisation:
  • Countries with weaker and less universalistic welfare state
  • Countries which have experienced economic crisis
  • (Szalai, 2005; Kessler and Di Virgilio, 2005; Maloutas, 2007)

    SOME EXAMPLES:

    Evidencia empírica de polarización social

    • Según algunos estudios, se dispone de pocos resultados empíricos en relación con las ‘ciudades duales’ (Buck et al. 2002)
    • Otras fuentes aportan ejemplos concretos de ciudades en las que se aprecia un crecimiento de las desigualdades laborales (Fainstein, 2001; Kräter, 2004):

  • Los ejemplos más claros de polarización: 
  • Países con estados de bienestar débiles y menos universalistas
  • Países que han sufrido crisis económicas
  • (Szalai, 2005; Kessler and Di Virgilio, 2005; Maloutas, 2007)

    ALGUNOS EJEMPLOS: 

     

    RESTATE

    Project RESTATE

    As regards social cohesion:

    Aim

    Peripheries built in large, high-density European states, in the early post war period(van Kempen et al 2005). They have social and physical problems. But… Are they really problematic? Or is it just a question of improving social cohesion? (Rowlands and Dekket, 2006).

    Findings

    MEASURES TO IMPROVE SOCIAL COHESION are essential. They:  

    • facilitate communication and networking between groups
    • empower residents
    • favour attachment to the neighbourhood and shared identity and
    • above all, promote effective participation of residents in decision making processes

     But they must be accompanied by MEASURES TO REDUCE INEQUALITIES  

    And it is important to offer more housing options for a greater housing mix. Because policies which:

    • see concentrations of poverty as a problem
    • promote demolition and gentrification 

     create even more socially diverse populations (Andersson and Musterd, 2005).

    As regards migration, ethnic diversity and neighbourhoods:

    Aim

    Fostering of social cohesion in ethnically-diverse estates

    Findings

    • The large, ethnically mixed estates don’t form a single cohesive community but overlapping communities.
    •  Future of social cohesion: mutual respect and democratic inclusion.