• What are you interested in?

  • En español

  • Learn key terms

    Find definitions for key terms used in this blog in our glossary
  • Do you want more?

    Debates and polls
    Join in current debates in Social Science and vote and check the results of polls about hot topics.

    Talk to the experts
    A space for exchange between the blog's readers and the Social Polis experts. Leave your questions and comments for the authors of the papers.

    Test your knowledge
    Online interactive quizzes to test your knowledge on Social Science.

  • Read the original Social Polis papers

    Social polarisation, the labour market and economic restructuring in Europe: an urban perspective
    Morlicchio and Pratschke

    Housing, Neighbourhood and Health: Research Review
    Cameron, Gilroy and Miciukiewick

    Cities, social cohesion and the environment
    Swyngedouw and Cook

    Towards a research agenda on Governance, Citizenship and Social Cohesion in Cities
    García, Pradel, Eizaguirre, Martínez and Terrones

    Super Diversity, Multiple Identities and Place
    Dukes and Musterd

    If you are interested in reading these papers, contact Social Polis.

  • References

  • Advertisements

Public and academic debates and their weaknesses

Main debates and conceptions of inclusion and integration of migrants in the 20th century in Europe:

It is important to understand that changes in political and social contexts  changes in attitudes towards newcomers.

1945-80s Early 90s Late 90s
– Political commitment to democracy
– Impulse to think inclusively
– Concentration on cultural diversity for the integration of migrants
BUT
– Cultural difference is not equally understood across Europe
– The leading principle on integration is citizenship
– Focus on the active citizenship of ethnic minorities
– ‘New realism’: ethnic minorities are expected to learn the language and adopt norms and values of the society.
–  Integration understood as a question of identity.

Diversity defined as ethnicity

  • Narrow definitions of diversity and identity; limited to ethnicity.
  • Aspects such as socioeconomic background, gender, age, language… are NOT CONSIDERED.

Stigmatising cultural dichotomies

  • Cultural diversity is approached negatively, not as an opportunity.
  • Two views on immigration:
    • As a long-term process where people find their way
    • Immigration as a problem. Negative relationship between city, immigration and integration

Negative approach to cultural diversity

  • Danger of using cultural dichotomies for social cohesion.
  • The construction of difference may stigmatise a whole group for ages.
Advertisements

Coexistence of several types of citizenship

T.H. Marshall’s theory on citizenship vs current broader approaches

Thomas H. Marshall’s classic theory on citizenship contrasts with current approaches.

Learn more about T.H. Marshall

Social, associational and urban citizenship

Social citizenship

Read the definitions of the concepts subnational and supranational.

Associational citizenship:

Read the definition of civil society.

Urban citizenship: