Public and academic debates and their weaknesses

Main debates and conceptions of inclusion and integration of migrants in the 20th century in Europe:

It is important to understand that changes in political and social contexts  changes in attitudes towards newcomers.

1945-80s Early 90s Late 90s
– Political commitment to democracy
– Impulse to think inclusively
– Concentration on cultural diversity for the integration of migrants
BUT
– Cultural difference is not equally understood across Europe
– The leading principle on integration is citizenship
– Focus on the active citizenship of ethnic minorities
– ‘New realism’: ethnic minorities are expected to learn the language and adopt norms and values of the society.
–  Integration understood as a question of identity.

Diversity defined as ethnicity

  • Narrow definitions of diversity and identity; limited to ethnicity.
  • Aspects such as socioeconomic background, gender, age, language… are NOT CONSIDERED.

Stigmatising cultural dichotomies

  • Cultural diversity is approached negatively, not as an opportunity.
  • Two views on immigration:
    • As a long-term process where people find their way
    • Immigration as a problem. Negative relationship between city, immigration and integration

Negative approach to cultural diversity

  • Danger of using cultural dichotomies for social cohesion.
  • The construction of difference may stigmatise a whole group for ages.
Advertisements

Coexistence of several types of citizenship

T.H. Marshall’s theory on citizenship vs current broader approaches

Thomas H. Marshall’s classic theory on citizenship contrasts with current approaches.

Learn more about T.H. Marshall

Social, associational and urban citizenship

Social citizenship

Read the definitions of the concepts subnational and supranational.

Associational citizenship:

Read the definition of civil society.

Urban citizenship: