BETWIXT

Project BETWIXT

As regards social cohesion:

Aim

Precariousness in 7 cities (Flatley & McIntosh, 2000) and the dynamics which:

  • drive households into poverty or
  • allow them to resist

Findings

  • Importance of strong systems of social protection
  •  Employment is not enough to guarantee social inclusion
  •  Good housing and safe neighbourhoods: crucial (Bertaux, Boje & McIntosh, 2002).

As regards neighbourhood, social mix and identity  (Olagnero et al, 2005):

Aim

Neighbourhoods in Ireland (Dublin) and Italy (Turin) may show signs of weak welfare states that rely on family and informal community-based welfare support.

However, there may also be evidence of  the effectiveness of this support, undermined by recent social changes (e.g. more women in the labor market)

Findings

  • Dublin (neighbourhood with concentrated poverty): More social diversity (from gentrification) + new gated communities  (for affluent newcomers) –> undermined the existing neighbourhood bonds and systems of support
  • Turin: Increasing ethnic diversity and ethnic divisions: undermined the attachment of residents to the neighbourhood

RESTATE

Project RESTATE

As regards social cohesion:

Aim

Peripheries built in large, high-density European states, in the early post war period(van Kempen et al 2005). They have social and physical problems. But… Are they really problematic? Or is it just a question of improving social cohesion? (Rowlands and Dekket, 2006).

Findings

MEASURES TO IMPROVE SOCIAL COHESION are essential. They:  

  • facilitate communication and networking between groups
  • empower residents
  • favour attachment to the neighbourhood and shared identity and
  • above all, promote effective participation of residents in decision making processes

 But they must be accompanied by MEASURES TO REDUCE INEQUALITIES  

And it is important to offer more housing options for a greater housing mix. Because policies which:

  • see concentrations of poverty as a problem
  • promote demolition and gentrification 

 create even more socially diverse populations (Andersson and Musterd, 2005).

As regards migration, ethnic diversity and neighbourhoods:

Aim

Fostering of social cohesion in ethnically-diverse estates

Findings

  • The large, ethnically mixed estates don’t form a single cohesive community but overlapping communities.
  •  Future of social cohesion: mutual respect and democratic inclusion.

Project SOCOHO

Project SOCOHO (2001-2003)

Czasny, 2004

As regards social cohesion:

Aim

Relationship between social cohesion problems and housing systems in 6 European countries:  Austria, France, Spain, UK, Sweden, and The Netherlands

Findings

  • EU housing systems are key to maintain social cohesion
  • Growing neoliberalism has a negative impact on cohesion: increases inequalities

 As regards the fragmentation of neighbourhood bonds:

Aim

Link between housing systems and neighbourhood segregation.

Findings

  • Housing provision systems: decisive influence on social and ethnic segregation between neighbourhoods 
  • Changes in housing systems: intensify tendency towards segregation 
  • Social housing policies that offer poor quality housing to the poor (the lower the rent, the lower the quality) and concentrate poverty encourage segregation Social housing policies that achieve a more balanced social mix encourage cohesion