Bottom-linked socially creative strategies

Civil society and governance dynamics

An interesting focus of recent research has been analysing the link between types of governance regimes and socially creative strategies promoted by civil society:

Participatory methodologies

Porto Alegre (Brazil) developed in 1989 a experience of participatory budgeting which has been extensively analysed.

Porto Alegre, Brazil

Learn more about participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre

The two-faced nature of governance beyond the state

The two-faced nature of governance beyond the state:


Coexistence of several types of citizenship

T.H. Marshall’s theory on citizenship vs current broader approaches

Thomas H. Marshall’s classic theory on citizenship contrasts with current approaches.

Learn more about T.H. Marshall

Social, associational and urban citizenship

Social citizenship

Read the definitions of the concepts subnational and supranational.

Associational citizenship:

Read the definition of civil society.

Urban citizenship: