Research on diversity: some research gaps found

Some of the research gaps found are:

  • How is “the other” constructed? Impact of particular constructions of “the other” on identity building groups and individuals and on their sense of belonging.
  • The impact of space and place on the process of identity building. How identities are build through intersections of multiple dimensions and how is identity politics related to the complexity of the individual lived life.
  • The multidimensional and multiscalar nature of diversity.
  • Relation of individual life courses of diversity with social inclusion.
  • Policy research: comparison of rhetoric with policy practices; target group or general policy, which is more effective?

Previous research findings

Research projects carried out up to date have given insight on:

  • Pathways to social exclusion for immigrants in different types of cities.
  • Migration processes.
  • Immigrants and integration.
  • Access to, quality and affordability of housing for migrants, and its impact on migrants’ integration. Research has shown the important role of housing systems in safeguarding social cohesion.

All these research findings point to the fact that redistribution reduces segregation.

Changes in public housing in Eastern Europe

Homelessness

INCREASING HOMELESSNESS (click here for homelessness estimates):

(Duracz-Walczak, 1996; Kowalak, 1998; Porowski, 1995; Przymeński, 2001; Rüdiger, 1996; Panier 2006).

Different models and classifications of housing systems

However…

Click here to read a summary table of experiences based upon the Welfare State Models Theory (Esping-Andersen, 1990).

BETWIXT

Project BETWIXT

As regards social cohesion:

Aim

Precariousness in 7 cities (Flatley & McIntosh, 2000) and the dynamics which:

  • drive households into poverty or
  • allow them to resist

Findings

  • Importance of strong systems of social protection
  •  Employment is not enough to guarantee social inclusion
  •  Good housing and safe neighbourhoods: crucial (Bertaux, Boje & McIntosh, 2002).

As regards neighbourhood, social mix and identity  (Olagnero et al, 2005):

Aim

Neighbourhoods in Ireland (Dublin) and Italy (Turin) may show signs of weak welfare states that rely on family and informal community-based welfare support.

However, there may also be evidence of  the effectiveness of this support, undermined by recent social changes (e.g. more women in the labor market)

Findings

  • Dublin (neighbourhood with concentrated poverty): More social diversity (from gentrification) + new gated communities  (for affluent newcomers) –> undermined the existing neighbourhood bonds and systems of support
  • Turin: Increasing ethnic diversity and ethnic divisions: undermined the attachment of residents to the neighbourhood

LIMITS

Project LIMITS 

‘Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities in European Cities: Life-courses and Quality of Life in a World of Limitations’ (Latcheva et al, 2006)

As regards social cohesion:

Aim

The integration of 6 groups of first generation immigrants from different sending countries into 6 cities in 5 European countries: Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden 

Findings

Housing is a key indicator for:

  • quality of life 
  • integration in the receiving country
  • social cohesion
  • urban tension

Housing quality depends a lot on the quality of housing provision in the receiving country.

The housing situation of immigrants has improved over time (Latcheva et al, 2006).

As regards migration, ethnic diversity and neighbourhoods:

(Latcheva et al, 2006)

Aim

Neighbourhood cohesion and social integration

Findings

FACTORS FAVOURING INTEGRATION FACTORS INHIBITING INTEGRATION(especially women and elderly)
  • KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE RECEIVING COUNTRY
  • INVOLVEMENT IN MIGRANT ORGANISATIONS
  • LACK OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE RECEIVING COUNTRY
  • LACK OF INVOLVEMENT IN MIGRANT ORGANISATIONS