Demographic changes

In the past decades in Europe there have been demographic changes. The main ones are increasing migration rates, an ageing population and a decreasing population growth.


New challenges for European politicians and policy-makers due to the demographic, social and cultural diversity.

Ageing and decreasing population growth


Important role of the welfare state

Consolidation of neoliberalism

Competitive austerity

Consolidation of segmented labour market

Read the definition of the key term segmented labour markets.

Decline of industrial employment

Social polarisation: trend of labour markets since the ‘70s

Social Polarisation has had and still has a key role in different strands of social research. Several social scientists since the ’50 have contributed to the debates around social polarisation and class structure.