Coexistence of several types of citizenship



INCREASING HOMELESSNESS (click here for homelessness estimates):

(Duracz-Walczak, 1996; Kowalak, 1998; Porowski, 1995; Przymeński, 2001; Rüdiger, 1996; Panier 2006).

Why are housing systems important for social cohesion?


 (Prak & Priemus 1984, Hall et al 2005)

Projects relating housing systems and social cohesion:


Impact of neoliberal policies in housing

Consolidation of neoliberalism

Project SOCOHO

Project SOCOHO (2001-2003)

Czasny, 2004

As regards social cohesion:


Relationship between social cohesion problems and housing systems in 6 European countries:  Austria, France, Spain, UK, Sweden, and The Netherlands


  • EU housing systems are key to maintain social cohesion
  • Growing neoliberalism has a negative impact on cohesion: increases inequalities

 As regards the fragmentation of neighbourhood bonds:


Link between housing systems and neighbourhood segregation.


  • Housing provision systems: decisive influence on social and ethnic segregation between neighbourhoods 
  • Changes in housing systems: intensify tendency towards segregation 
  • Social housing policies that offer poor quality housing to the poor (the lower the rent, the lower the quality) and concentrate poverty encourage segregation Social housing policies that achieve a more balanced social mix encourage cohesion

Antecedents to urban sustainability throughout the 20th century

Meanwhile, engineers and urban planners transformed the city:

In the late 1960s:

McHarg’s (1969). Design with Nature. First guidelines to ‘ecologise’ the city:

In the 1970s: