• What are you interested in?

  • En español

  • Learn key terms

    Find definitions for key terms used in this blog in our glossary
  • Do you want more?

    Debates and polls
    Join in current debates in Social Science and vote and check the results of polls about hot topics.

    Talk to the experts
    A space for exchange between the blog's readers and the Social Polis experts. Leave your questions and comments for the authors of the papers.

    Test your knowledge
    Online interactive quizzes to test your knowledge on Social Science.

  • Read the original Social Polis papers

    Social polarisation, the labour market and economic restructuring in Europe: an urban perspective
    Morlicchio and Pratschke

    Housing, Neighbourhood and Health: Research Review
    Cameron, Gilroy and Miciukiewick

    Cities, social cohesion and the environment
    Swyngedouw and Cook

    Towards a research agenda on Governance, Citizenship and Social Cohesion in Cities
    García, Pradel, Eizaguirre, Martínez and Terrones

    Super Diversity, Multiple Identities and Place
    Dukes and Musterd

    If you are interested in reading these papers, contact Social Polis.

  • References

  • Advertisements

EU research projects on diversity, identity and social cohesion

Some EU-funded research projects have focused on social exclusion (its spatial patterns, dynamics causing it) and integration issues, examined in various contexts and especially related to immigrants and ethnic minorities:

Other 6th Framework Programme projects (LOCALMULTIDEM, KATARSIS, TRESEGY, SUS.DIV) were related to diversity, identity and social cohesion.

The 7th Framework Programme project EURISLAM examined the relation between:

Advertisements

Public and academic debates and their weaknesses

Main debates and conceptions of inclusion and integration of migrants in the 20th century in Europe:

It is important to understand that changes in political and social contexts  changes in attitudes towards newcomers.

1945-80s Early 90s Late 90s
– Political commitment to democracy
– Impulse to think inclusively
– Concentration on cultural diversity for the integration of migrants
BUT
– Cultural difference is not equally understood across Europe
– The leading principle on integration is citizenship
– Focus on the active citizenship of ethnic minorities
– ‘New realism’: ethnic minorities are expected to learn the language and adopt norms and values of the society.
–  Integration understood as a question of identity.

Diversity defined as ethnicity

  • Narrow definitions of diversity and identity; limited to ethnicity.
  • Aspects such as socioeconomic background, gender, age, language… are NOT CONSIDERED.

Stigmatising cultural dichotomies

  • Cultural diversity is approached negatively, not as an opportunity.
  • Two views on immigration:
    • As a long-term process where people find their way
    • Immigration as a problem. Negative relationship between city, immigration and integration

Negative approach to cultural diversity

  • Danger of using cultural dichotomies for social cohesion.
  • The construction of difference may stigmatise a whole group for ages.

What is social cohesion?

There are different definitions of social cohesion, but their common elements are the following ones (Pahl 1991; Kearns & Forrest 2000; Dekker, 2006):

BUT, in reality this is not so easy because several elements interact and interrelate:

What is super diversity?

The concept of diversity describes those visible or invisible aspects that make people differ from each other. Elements of diversity can be age, gender, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability, etc.

But what is super diversity?

The relational and cultural dimensions in governance debates

The relational and cultural dimensions in governance debates:



Social economy initiatives in housing

Forrest and Kearns 2006:

Click here for examples of social economy initiatives in housing in different countries.

Migration

INCREASING MIGRATION:

Projects considering the role of housing in social cohesion and integration: