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  • References

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Urban sustainability: the fantasy of socio-ecological urban cohesion

In the late 20th century:

Braun 2005 outlines the approaches to urban sustainability:

There are loads of literature on urban sustainability. Da Cunha et al. (2005) describes the vast majority of this literature in the following terms:

There are some problems with this approach (according to Keil, 2003; Keil, 2005; Swyngedouw, 2007a; Haughton 1999, p.233):

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Antecedents to urban sustainability throughout the 20th century

Meanwhile, engineers and urban planners transformed the city:

In the late 1960s:

McHarg’s (1969). Design with Nature. First guidelines to ‘ecologise’ the city:

In the 1970s:

1920s antecedents to urban sustainability

Check some academic references stressing the inevitable interconnection Urbanisation – Nature.

19th and 20th century antecedents to urban sustainability: Engels, Marx, Chicago School and others

The antecedents to theories on urban sustainability can be traced back to four different periods.

Click on any of the following links to start: