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  • Read the original Social Polis papers

    Social polarisation, the labour market and economic restructuring in Europe: an urban perspective
    Morlicchio and Pratschke

    Housing, Neighbourhood and Health: Research Review
    Cameron, Gilroy and Miciukiewick

    Cities, social cohesion and the environment
    Swyngedouw and Cook

    Towards a research agenda on Governance, Citizenship and Social Cohesion in Cities
    García, Pradel, Eizaguirre, Martínez and Terrones

    Super Diversity, Multiple Identities and Place
    Dukes and Musterd

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  • References

Socio-ecological circulation of urban metabolisms: Hybrid natures and Cyborg cities

Read the definitions of some key terms: metabolism, urban metabolism, capitalism.

 

But further research is needed!

 

 

To really understand the role of the state in environmental injustice political economic studies of state restructuring and neo-liberalisation are needed.

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Urban political ecology

Urban political ecology (UPE) is a school of critical urban political-environmental research (Heynen et al. 2006b) which complements the view of Environmental Justice:

On the basis of the school of urban political ecology there are three main thinkers:

 

Click here to read references to some urban political ecology monographs.

The main ideas of urban political ecology are:

 

To sum up:

However, the two approaches are compatible:

Urban sustainability: the fantasy of socio-ecological urban cohesion

In the late 20th century:

Braun 2005 outlines the approaches to urban sustainability:

There are loads of literature on urban sustainability. Da Cunha et al. (2005) describes the vast majority of this literature in the following terms:

There are some problems with this approach (according to Keil, 2003; Keil, 2005; Swyngedouw, 2007a; Haughton 1999, p.233):

Antecedents to urban sustainability throughout the 20th century

Meanwhile, engineers and urban planners transformed the city:

In the late 1960s:

McHarg’s (1969). Design with Nature. First guidelines to ‘ecologise’ the city:

In the 1970s:

1920s antecedents to urban sustainability

Check some academic references stressing the inevitable interconnection Urbanisation – Nature.

Mid 19th Century antecedents to urban sustainability

Both social authors and natural scientists proposed theories on urban sustainability.

Social authors, such as Friedrich Engels (The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1971 [1844]),  showed the following relationships:

Natural scientists, such as Jacob Moleschott (1852) and Justus von Liebig (1855), among others also pointed out this relationship:

The main concept behind these antecedents is that of metabolic notion: the city and the environment exchange energy and substances. 

The city is conceived as an organism, which receives from the environment and gives away to the environment. This exchange is vital:

Karl Marx incorporated this idea in Capital by Karl Marx (1981 [1867] p. 949):

Marx also described the consequences of the metabolic division in Capital (1981 [1867] p. 949).